Rock climbing is an exhilarating, challenging, and rewarding sport that has grown immensely in popularity over the past few decades. It combines physical strength, mental fortitude, and problem-solving skills to scale natural and artificial rock formations.
Whether you’re a complete beginner or an experienced climber looking for a new challenge, understanding the history of rock climbing and different types of rock climbing will help you find the style that best suits your interests and abilities.
In this comprehensive guide, we’ll cover the history of rock climbing and the types of modern rock climbing. This will help you identify which climbing discipline is right for you.
By the end of this article, you’ll have a solid foundation of knowledge to embark on your rock climbing journey with confidence.
- Rock climbing is a versatile sport that has grown immensely in popularity, offering various disciplines to suit different interests, abilities, and environments.
- The history of rock climbing dates back to the early 19th century, with significant advancements in techniques, equipment, and safety standards occurring throughout the 20th century.
- There are 15 distinct types of climbing, including sport climbing, top rope climbing, aid climbing, traditional climbing, free climbing, free soloing, deep water soloing, big wall climbing, bouldering, alpine climbing, ice climbing, mixed climbing and dry tooling, speed climbing, crack climbing, and slab climbing.
- To choose the right type of climbing for you, consider factors such as experience level, fitness, interests, personal goals, risk tolerance, and accessibility of climbing opportunities.
- Prioritize safety in all aspects of climbing, including education and training, proper equipment, communication, planning, risk assessment, and knowing your limits.
- Each climbing discipline has specific safety precautions to consider, such as proper gear placement, route planning, and environmental awareness.
- Rock climbing offers countless opportunities to connect with nature, challenge yourself, and create unforgettable memories. Embrace the adventure and enjoy the thrill of this incredible sport!
What is Rock Climbing?
Rock climbing uses specialized equipment and techniques to ascend steep rock formations or artificial walls. Rock climbing can be practiced indoors on specially designed climbing walls or outdoors on natural rock formations.
Some climbers may focus on a single type of climbing, while others prefer using multiple styles to experience a broader range of challenges. The range of climbing disciplines available makes rock climbing accessible to people of all ages, abilities, and interests.
First, I’ll review the history of rock climbing and the development of the various styles of rock climbing.
A Short History of Climbing
Rock climbing began because people wanted to climb mountain peaks. Today it has evolved to be a very popular competitive and recreational activity.
In the early 19th-century mountaineering expeditions, primarily led by Europeans, sought to conquer the highest peaks of the Alps and other challenging ranges. To succeed, they needed to develop techniques and equipment that could be used to scale challenging rock faces. As they gained experience, climbers began to appreciate the process of climbing itself and started to focus on the technical aspects of ascending rock faces.
By the early 20th century, rock climbing had become a distinct sport, with climbers tackling increasingly difficult routes and developing new techniques to overcome obstacles The 1960s and 70s, often referred to as the “Golden Age” of climbing, were marked by significant advances in climbing techniques, equipment, and safety standards. Innovations such as the use of nylon ropes, specialized climbing shoes, and lightweight protection devices revolutionized the sport.
During the latter half of the 20th century, rock climbing continued to diversify, with the emergence of disciplines such as bouldering, sport climbing, and indoor climbing. In the 1980s and 90s gyms began building artificial climbing walls, making it more accessible to people living in urban areas. In 2007, the International Federation of Sport Climbing (IFSC) was formed and the first climbing competitions were held.
In 2020, Rock Climbing was included in the Olympic games, further cementing the sport’s global position and showcasing climbers’ incredible athleticism, skill, and determination worldwide.
With the ongoing development of new techniques, equipment, and climbing disciplines, the future of rock climbing looks bright, and the sport’s reach and appeal are likely to continue to expand in the coming years.
Different Types of Rock Climbing Explained
Now that you have a basic understanding of the evolution of rock climbing, Let’s explore in detail the diverse range of climbing styles and techniques.
Each type of climbing offers unique challenges, techniques, and experiences, catering to a wide range of interests and skill levels. In this section, I give you a brief overview of 15 distinct types of climbing, from traditional climbing to speed climbing, to help you gain a comprehensive understanding of the various facets of this diverse sport.
Whether you’re just starting your climbing journey or looking to broaden your horizons, there’s a type of climbing that’s perfect for you.
Here is a quick breakdown of all fifteen types of rock climbing.
|Type of Rock Climbing
|Key Skills / Equipment Needed
|Involves pre-equipped routes with fixed protection, focusing on physical technique, strength, and endurance.
|Quickdraws, rope, harness, climbing shoes
|Beginner – Advanced
|Top Rope Climbing
|Climber is secured to a rope running through an anchor system at the top of the route, minimizing the risk of long falls. Ideal for beginners or skill-building.
|Rope, harness, belay device, carabiners, anchor
|Beginner – Advanced
|Uses specialized gear to assist in upward progress. Equipment like pitons, cams, and slings are placed in the rock to help the climber ascend difficult sections.
|Pitons, cams, slings, etriers, rope, harness
|Intermediate – Advanced
|Climbers place their own removable protection into the rock as they ascend. Requires self-reliance, route-finding skills, and risk management.
|Nuts, cams, rope, harness, quickdraws, carabiners
|Intermediate – Advanced
|Ascend a route using only the natural features of the rock, with ropes and protective gear used only in case of a fall. Requires thorough understanding of specialized techniques.
|Rope, harness, quickdraws, climbing shoes
|Intermediate – Advanced
|Ascend without the use of ropes, harnesses, or protective gear. High risk of injury or death in the event of a fall. Relies on climbing skills, mental fortitude, and physical strength.
|Climbing shoes, chalk, extensive experience
|Advanced – Expert
|Deep Water Soloing
|Solo climbing over a body of water, providing a natural “safety net” for falls. Combines elements of free soloing and bouldering. Requires proper knowledge of water depths and conditions.
|Climbing shoes, chalk, knowledge of water depths
|Intermediate – Advanced
|Big Wall Climbing
|Ascent of large, vertical rock faces that typically require multiple days to complete. Uses a combination of free climbing, aid climbing, and hauling systems.
|Hauling systems, portaledge, aid climbing gear
|Advanced – Expert
|Climbing short, low-height rock formations or artificial walls without ropes or harnesses. Crash pad placed on the ground for protection. Focuses on powerful, technical moves and problem-solving skills.
|Climbing shoes, chalk, crash pad
|Beginner – Advanced
|Combines rock climbing, ice climbing, and glacier travel to ascend high mountain peaks. Requires a wide range of skills and knowledge of weather and avalanche conditions. Often takes place in remote locations.
|Ice axes, crampons, rope, harness, warm clothing
|Advanced – Expert
|Ascent of frozen waterfalls, ice-covered rock faces, or glaciers using specialized equipment. Requires the ability to assess ice conditions and properly place protection.
|Ice axes, crampons, ice screws, rope, harness
|Intermediate – Advanced
|Mixed Climbing & Dry Tooling
|Combines rock and ice climbing techniques for routes with rock, ice, and snow. Dry tooling uses ice axes and crampons on rock faces without ice or snow. Both require adaptability and transitioning between techniques.
|Ice axes, crampons, rope, harness, quickdraws, carabiners, mixed climbing specific gear
|Intermediate – Advanced
|Competitive sport focused on climbing a standardized route as quickly as possible. Emphasizes explosive power, endurance, and efficient movement. Made its Olympic debut at the 2020 Tokyo Games.
|Climbing shoes, rope, harness, belay device, quickdraws, carabiners
|Intermediate – Advanced
|Involves ascending rock faces that are less steep than vertical, requiring careful footwork and balance more than upper body strength.
|Climbing shoes, rope, harness, quickdraws
|Beginner – Advanced
|Refers to climbing on rock surfaces with cracks, using specialized techniques to insert hands, feet, or entire body parts into cracks for progress.
|Rope, harness, climbing shoes, nut tool, quickdraws, cams, nuts
|Beginner – Advanced
1. Sport Climbing
Sport climbing involves routes that are pre-equipped with fixed protection, such as bolts and anchors. This style of climbing focuses on physical technique, strength, and endurance, allowing climbers to push their limits without worrying about placing protection.
Sport climbing has become a major competitive discipline and is popular among climbers of all levels due to its accessibility and safety.
Check out our in-depth articles for even more information on sport climbing.
2. Top Rope Climbing
In Top rope climbing, the climber is secured to a rope that runs through an anchor system at the top of the route and back down to a belayer on the ground. These anchors may be permanent or they can be set in advance by an experienced climber.
This setup minimizes the risk of long falls, making it an ideal choice for beginners or those looking to build their climbing skills in a controlled environment.
For more information on top rope climbing, click here.
3. Aid Climbing
Aid climbing uses specialized gear to assist in upward progress, rather than relying solely on the climber’s physical abilities. Equipment such as pitons, cams, and slings are placed in the rock and used to pull or step on, helping the climber ascend difficult sections.
Aid climbing is often utilized on long, challenging routes, and big wall climbs. While it can be a slower, more methodical process, aid climbing allows climbers to tackle some of the world’s most impressive and difficult rock formations.
4. Traditional Climbing
Traditional Climbing is similar to top roping because climbers ascend using ropes and anchors. However, in traditional climbing, the climbers place their own removable protection, such as nuts and cams, into the rock as they ascend.
Traditional Climbing requires self-reliance, route-finding skills, and risk management.
5. Free Climbing
Free climbing doesn’t use ropes and anchors. The challenge is to ascend a route using only the rock’s natural features, and the climber’s hands, feet, and body to navigate the rock face. Ropes and protective gear are only used in case of a fall.
Free climbing requires a thorough understanding of specialized techniques and should not be attempted by novices. It is very physically demanding, but also very rewarding.
If you’re interested in learning more about free climbing, read our article, What is a Free Climb? A Comprehensive Guide to Techniques, Styles, and Safety.
6. Free Soloing
Free Soloing is free climbing by a lone climber who ascends without the use of ropes, harnesses, or protective gear. Because there is no partner to assist the climber, this is considered the most dangerous type of climbing with a high risk of injury or death in the event of a fall.
Free soloists rely completely on their climbing skills, mental fortitude, and physical strength to reach the summit. This type of climbing is not recommended for beginners or any climber who hasn’t had the kind of extensive experience and confidence required for this rigorous sport.
7. Deep Water Soloing
Deep water soloing (DWS), also known as psicobloc, is a form of solo climbing that takes place over a body of water, providing a natural “safety net” for falls. Climbers scale sea cliffs, rock formations, or artificial walls without ropes, harnesses, or protective gear, relying on the water below to cushion any falls.
Deep water soloing combines elements of free soloing and bouldering, offering an adrenaline-fueled experience that pushes climbers to test their limits while mitigating some of the risks associated with unprotected climbing.
The presence of water below the climber reduces the risk of most falls. However, it is still dangerous and should only be attempted by experienced climbers with proper knowledge of water depths and conditions.
8. Big Wall Climbing
Big wall climbing refers to the ascent of large, vertical rock faces that typically require multiple days to complete. Climbers use a combination of free climbing, aid climbing, and hauling systems to overcome the challenges presented by these massive walls.
The most famous big wall is El Capitan in Yosemite National Park, which has attracted climbers from around the world for decades.
Bouldering is a form of rock climbing that focuses on climbing short, low-height rock formations or artificial walls without the use of ropes or harnesses. Instead, climbers use a crash pad placed on the ground to protect them in case of a fall.
Bouldering routes, known as problems, typically involve powerful, technical moves and require excellent problem-solving skills.
Bouldering is popular among climbers of all levels due to its accessibility, minimal equipment requirements, and social atmosphere.
To learn more about how to get started bouldering check out our introductory article on bouldering.
10. Alpine Climbing
Alpine climbing, also known as mountaineering, combines rock climbing, ice climbing, and glacier travel to ascend high mountain peaks.
This discipline demands a wide range of skills, including route finding, technical climbing, and knowledge of weather and avalanche conditions. Alpine climbing often takes place in remote locations, requiring climbers to be self-sufficient and adaptable.
11. Ice Climbing
Ice climbing involves the ascent of frozen waterfalls, ice-covered rock faces, or glaciers using specialized equipment such as ice axes, crampons, and ice screws.
Ice climbing is typically practiced during winter months in cold environments. Ice climbing requires unique skills, including assessing ice conditions and properly placing protection.
12. Mixed Climbing and Dry Tooling
Mixed climbing involves the use of both rock climbing and ice climbing techniques to ascend routes featuring a combination of rock, ice, and snow. Dry tooling is a subset of mixed climbing that focuses on climbing rock faces using ice axes and crampons, without the presence of ice or snow.
Both mixed climbing and dry tooling require a high level of skill and adaptability, as climbers must effectively transition between different climbing techniques and conditions.
13. Speed Climbing
Speed climbing is a competitive sport that focuses on completing a climbing route in the fastest time possible. In speed climbing competitions, climbers race against the clock and each other to reach the top of a standardized route.
This style of climbing emphasizes explosive power, endurance, and efficient movement, as climbers must balance speed with technique to achieve the fastest time. Speed climbing made its Olympic debut at the 2020 Tokyo Games as part of the combined climbing event.
14. Slab Climbing
Slab climbing is a type of rock climbing that involves ascending a rock face with a gradient less than vertical, often featuring few obvious handholds or footholds. This style of climbing requires careful footwork, balance, and patience, as climbers must rely on friction between their shoes and the rock rather than pulling themselves up with their hands.
The challenge in slab climbing comes from its deceptive simplicity. The absence of large features makes route-finding difficult and falls can be hard to predict. However, it offers an excellent opportunity for climbers to develop precision and control.
Want to learn more about slab climbing, check out our beginner’s guide to slab climbing.
15. Crack Climbing
Crack climbing is another specialized form of rock climbing where climbers ascend cracks in the rock face. They use specific techniques such as jamming hands, feet, or entire body parts into the crack for grip and leverage. Protection is typically placed in these cracks using gear like cams and nuts.
This style of climbing can be physically demanding and requires a unique set of skills compared to other styles. It’s often seen as a traditional form of rock climbing. It’s one of the earliest forms of free-climbing when climbers began seeking natural lines up the rock.
For those interested in mastering this age-old technique or simply want more information on crack climbing, read our introductory article on crack climbing.
Check out this video for a more detailed explanation on a few of the types of climbing we covered.
If you want more information about all of these rock climbing styles and rock climbing in general, click here.
Finding Your Climbing Style
These 13 types of climbing showcase the diverse range of disciplines within the sport, suitable to a wide variety of interests, skill levels, and environments.
Whether you’re drawn to the technical challenges of traditional climbing, the adrenaline rush of free soloing, or the icy allure of mountaineering, there’s a type of climbing waiting for you to explore and enjoy.
Here is an overview of what to consider when finding the perfect rock climbing style.
|Finding Your Climbing Style
|Assess Your Experience & Skill Level
|Start with less risky and more accessible forms of climbing (top rope, bouldering) as a beginner. Develop basic climbing skills and techniques before progressing to advanced types of climbing.
|Assess Your Fitness Level
|Consider your physical fitness and athletic background. Different types of climbing demand different physical attributes (strength, flexibility, endurance, balance). Choose a discipline that aligns with your strengths and preferences.
|Identify Your Interests & Goals
|Determine what aspects of climbing appeal to you the most (technical challenges, physical challenges, remote landscapes, controlled environments). Select one or more climbing styles that align with your interests and goals.
|Evaluate your risk tolerance and choose a discipline that aligns with your comfort level. Avoid disciplines that cause constant fear or anxiety.
|Accessibility of Climbing Opportunities
|Consider your location and access to climbing resources (climbing gyms, outdoor climbing areas). Choose a type of climbing that is both feasible and appealing based on the resources available to you.
|Try Different Disciplines
|Choose a few types of climbing that fit your fitness level and interests. Learn and practice techniques at a climbing gym or on a short, easy slope. Take an introductory course, join a local climbing club, or find experienced climbing partners to introduce you to different styles of climbing. Gain firsthand experience in multiple disciplines to make a more informed decision about which type(s) of climbing are the best fit for you.
Choosing the Right Type of Climbing for You
With so many different types of climbing to choose from, it can seem overwhelming to decide which one is the best fit for you. When selecting a climbing discipline, it’s important to consider factors such as your experience level, fitness, interests, and personal goals.
This section will help you choose the best type of climbing for you.
Assess your experience and skill level: As a beginner, it’s generally best to start with less risky and more accessible forms of climbing, such as top rope climbing or bouldering. These disciplines provide a solid foundation for developing basic climbing skills and techniques, which can then be applied to more advanced types of climbing as you progress.
Assessing your Fitness Level
One of the most important considerations in choosing the type of climbing that will suit you best is to Consider your physical fitness and athletic background.
Different types of climbing demand different physical attributes, such as strength, flexibility, endurance, and balance. You may be well-suited to the physical challenges of sport climbing or bouldering if you have a strong athletic background.
On the other hand, if you prefer activities that are more focused on endurance and concentration, you might be more drawn to traditional or alpine climbing.
Identify your Interests and Goals
Another important self-assessment that will help you choose a climbing discipline is thinking about what aspects of climbing appeal to you the most.
Are you drawn to the technical challenges of route-finding and gear placement, or do you prefer the physical challenge of pushing your body to its limits? Are you interested in exploring remote mountain landscapes or do you prefer a controlled environment?
By identifying what you find most rewarding and enjoyable about climbing, you can select one or more climbing styles that align with your interests and goals.
To have an enjoyable climbing experience, evaluate your risk tolerance before you choose a discipline.
Some types of climbing, such as free soloing and deep water soloing, involve a higher level of risk than others. It’s crucial to be honest with yourself about your risk tolerance and choose a discipline that aligns with your comfort level.
Remember that climbing should be a fun and rewarding activity, not a source of constant fear or anxiety.
Accessibility of Climbing Opportunities
Take into account your location and access to climbing resources: Depending on where you live, certain types of climbing may be more accessible than others.
For example, if you live near a climbing gym, you might find it easiest to start with indoor climbing or bouldering. If you have access to outdoor climbing areas with bolted routes, sport climbing could be a great option. Consider the resources available to you and choose a type of climbing that is both feasible and appealing.
Try Different Disciplines
Don’t settle on one type of climbing right away. Choose a few types that seem to fit your fitness level and interests. Learn and practice the techniques needed for each type either at a climbing gym or on a short, easy slope. When you feel confident in your skills, try climbing more difficult terrain.
The best way to discover which type of climbing is right for you is to try all the ones that seem to fit.. Take an introductory course, join a local climbing club, or find experienced climbing partners who can introduce you to different styles of climbing. You don’t have to limit yourself to only one type of climbing. By gaining firsthand experience in multiple disciplines, you’ll be able to make a more informed decision about which type or types of climbing is the best fit for you.
General Safety Considerations
Regardless of the type of climbing you choose, safety should always be a top priority. Climbing carries inherent risks; minimizing them through proper training, equipment, and decision-making is crucial.
Education and training
Before embarking on any type of climbing, acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills is essential. Take a course from a certified instructor, read instructional books, or learn from experienced climbing partners. Understand the specific techniques, gear, and safety procedures required for your chosen discipline.
Purchase or Rent the Necessary Equipment
Invest in high-quality, well-maintained climbing gear that is designed for your specific type of climbing. Ensure that your equipment meets industry safety standards and is in good working order. Regularly inspect your gear for signs of wear or damage, and replace it as needed.
Communication and planning
Establish clear communication protocols with your climbing partners, including verbal commands and non-verbal signals.
Plan your climbing route carefully, considering factors such as weather conditions, route difficulty, and your team’s experience level. Always have a backup plan in case of unforeseen circumstances.
Know your limits
Be honest with yourself about your abilities and experience level. Avoid attempting climbs beyond your current skill level or pushing you into a dangerous situation. Progress gradually, allowing yourself time to develop the necessary strength, technique, and mental fortitude for more challenging climbs.
Assess risks and conditions
Before you start your climb, evaluate the climbing conditions and potential risks. Monitor weather changes, rock stability, and your own physical and mental state. Be prepared to adjust your plans or retreat if necessary to maintain safety.
Specific safety precautions for each discipline
In addition to the general safety considerations previously discussed, each discipline has many special safety precautions. In this section, I discuss some of the most essential for the most each climbing discipline.
Traditional and Sport Climbing and Top Roping
These types of climbing depend heavily on properly placed protection equipment like nuts and cams. It is essential to properly place and inspect each anchor to be sure it is secure. Since these climbs require a partner, communication with the other climber is essential, especially when belaying.
The most specialized item of equipment for Bouldering is the Crash Pad. Use a crash pad whenever you boulder to cushion potential falls. Another important safety procedure is the use of a spotter to help guide your climb and ensure your safety. Be aware of your surroundings, including the terrain, other climbers, and obstacles.
Aid and big wall climbing
These types of climbing rely on specialized gear and techniques. Safety precautions include understanding this equipment and knowing how to properly place protection and hauling systems
Ice and alpine climbing
These sports require understanding the unique challenges of climbing in cold and snowy conditions, including assessing ice quality, avalanche risk, and weather conditions. You also need to know how to use specialized equipment, such as ice axes, crampons, and ice screws, appropriately and safely.
Mixed climbing and dry tooling
It requires learning the skills necessary for ice climbing and how to properly use them on rock and ice.
Free Soloing and Deep Water Soloing
The most important safety consideration for these high-risk disciplines is your experience level, and rock climbing skills.
In addition, If you have the skills necessary to take on these dangerous challenges, there are some special safety considerations. For free soloing, plan your route carefully and proceed with caution. For deep water soloing, you also need to be sure the water is deep enough to safely cushion falls and check for any potential underwater hazards.
For an overview of outdoor rock climbing safety, check out the national park service article on Staying Safe.
Start Your Rock Climbing Journey
Rock climbing is an incredibly diverse and rewarding sport that offers something for everyone, from the casual weekend warrior to the elite, world-class athlete.
As you venture into the world of climbing, remember to prioritize safety, invest in proper education and training, and always respect the environment and fellow climbers.
Whether you’re scaling towering cliffs, navigating icy alpine terrain, or pushing your limits on challenging boulder problems, rock climbing offers countless opportunities to connect with nature, challenge yourself, and forge unforgettable memories. So grab your gear, find your climbing community, and let the adventure begin!